EEC

Nancy J. Newman, M.D.
Leo Delle Jolley Professor of Ophthalmology
Professor of Ophthalmology, Neurology and Neurological Surgery
Emory University School of Medicine
Emory Eye Center
Atlanta, GA

Valérie Biousse, M.D.
Cyrus H. Stoner Professor of Ophthalmology
Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology
Emory University School of Medicine
Emory Eye Center
Atlanta, GA

Sachin Kedar, M.D.
Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology
Emory University School of Medicine
Emory Eye Center
Atlanta, GA

Jason H. Peragallo, M.D.
Associate Professor of Ophthalmology and Pediatrics
Emory University School of Medicine
Emory Eye Center
Atlanta, GA

Michael Dattilo, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology
Emory University School of Medicine
Emory Eye Center
Atlanta, GA

Beau B. Bruce, M.D., Ph.D.
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology
Medical Director of Clinical Trials,
Department of Ophthalmology
Emory University School of Medicine
Emory Eye Center
Assistant Professor of Epidemiology
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University
Atlanta, GA


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Table of Contents

  1. Anatomy and Physiology
    1. Bony Anatomy
      1. Orbit
      2. Optic Canal
    2. Anatomy of the Optic Nerve
    3. Afferent Visual Pathways
      1. Retina
      2. Optic Nerve
      3. Optic Chiasm
      4. Calcarine Cortex
    4. Efferent Visual Pathways
      1. Nuclear Centers: Trochlear
      2. Ocular Motor Nerves: Oculomotor
    5. Trigeminal system
    6. Vascular Anatomy
      1. Arterial Anatomy
      2. Vertobrobasilar System: Posterior Cerebral Artery and Its Branches
      3. Venous Anatomy: Cerebral venous sinuses
      4. Venous Anatomy: Cavernous Sinus
      5. Arterial Anatomy: Ophthalmic Artery
  2. Ocular and Neurologic Evaluation
    1. Ocular and Neurological Examinations
      1. Funduscopic Examination
      2. Use of Slit Lamp
      3. Pupillary Examination: Measuring the RAPD
    2. Diagnostic tests- ophthalmic
      1. Imaging the macula
        1. Ganglion cell layer (GCL)
    3. Ancillary Tests Obtained in Neuro-Ophthalmology
      1. Imaging: CTA
      2. Imaging: MRI
      3. Imaging: Functioning Neuro-Imaging
  3. Neuro-Ophthalmologic Symptoms and Signs
    1. Visual Loss
      1. Transient
    2. Visual Field Loss
    3. Normal and Abnormal Optic Nerve
      1. Optic disc edema
      2. Papilledema
    4. Orbital Signs
      1. Proptosis
      2. Pulsating Exophthalmus
    5. Ptosis
      1. Nuclear Third Nerve Palsy
      2. Fascicular Third Nerve Palsy
  4. Disorders of the Afferent and Efferent Visual Pathways
    1. Diseases of the Optic Nerve
      1. Compression/Infiltration: Gliomas
      2. Raised Intracranial Pressure
      3. Optic Nerve Hypoplasia
      4. Optic Disc Melanocytoma
      5. Neuroretinitis
    2. Orbital Pathology Causing Neuro-Ophthalmic Manifestations
      1. Mass Lesions: Neoplasms
      2. Mass Lesions: Optic Nerve Glioma
      3. Inflammation/Infection: Scleritis
      4. Inflammation/Infection: Myositis
      5. Thyroid Orbitopathy: Thyroid Orbitopathy and Myasthenia
      6. Infection
        1. Orbital Infections (Cellulitis)
        2. Abscess
    3. Diseases of the Chiasm
      1. Chiasmal Visual Field Defects
      2. Compression/Infiltration: Chiasmal Compression
      3. Compression/Infiltration: Pituitary Adenoma
    4. Pupillary Pathology
      1. Evaluation and Management of Specific Pupillary Disorders: Third Nerve Palsy
    5. Eye Movement System Pathology
      1. Specific Ocular Motor Syndromes: Cranial Nerve Palsies: Third
      2. Specific Ocular Motor Syndromes: Ocular Tilt Reaction
      3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO)
  5. Systemic, Neurologic, and Ophthalmic Disorders Commonly Associated with Neuro-Ophthalmic Manifestations
    1. Developmental and Congenital Anomalies with Neuro-Ophthalmologic Consequences
      1. Congenital Hydrocephalus
    2. Systemic Disorders Commonly Associated with Neuro-Ophthalmologic Manifestations
      1. Specific Hereditary Ocular and Neurologic Diseases with Neuro-Ophthalmic Presentation
        1. Marfan Syndrome
      2. Neurocutaneous Syndromes
        1. Sturge-Weber
        2. Neurofibromatosis
      3. Mitochondrial Disease
        1. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
    3. Vascular Disease
      1. Carotid Cavernous Fistula
      2. Carotid Occlusive Disease
      3. Hypertensive Retinopathy
    4. Autoimmune diseases, classification of vasculitides
      1. Giant cell arteritis
      2. Neurosarcoidosis
      3. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)
    5. Complications of infections
      1. Toxoplasmosis
    6. Neurologic Disorders Commonly Associated with Neuro-Ophthalmologic Manifestations
      1. Increased Intracranial Pressure
      2. Vascular Disease of the Brain and the Eye
        1. Ocular Ischemia
        2. Hemorrhage: Terson Syndome
        3. Venous Sinus Thrombosis: Superior Ophthalmic Vein Thrombosis
        4. Cavernous Venous Thrombosis
        5. Selected Causes of Stroke
        6. Intracranial Vascular Malformations, Diagnosis, and Neuro-Ophthalmologic Manifestations: Aneurysms
        7. Cavernous hemangiomas
      3. Neuro-Ophthalmic Manifestations of Neoplasms
        1. Intracranial Tumors
        2. Gliomatosis Cerebri
      4. Infections (neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of localized and systemic infections)
        1. Intracranial infections - Abscess

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