Ocular Motility

Structure And Functions

Section 1: Muscle and Neuromuscular Junction

  1. Restrictive Orbitopathy
  2. Myasthenia Gravis
    1. Ocular Myasthenia Gravis
    2. Generalized Myasthenia Gravis
    3. MuSK Antibody Myasthenia Gravis
  3. Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia
  4. Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Neuropathy (Miller Fisher Syndrome)

Section 2: Cranial Nerve

  1. Third Nerve
    1. Nuclear
    2. Unilateral
  2. Fourth Nerve Palsy
    1. Unilateral
  3. Sixth Nerve Palsy
    1. Unilateral
    2. Bilateral
  4. Multiple Ocular Motor Nerve Palsies
    1. Cavernous Sinus Syndrome

Section 3: Nuclear

  1. Third Nerve - Oculomotor Nucleus
  2. Sixth Nerve - Abducens Nucleus
    1. Congenital - Duane's Syndrome

Section 4: Internuclear

  1. Unilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
  2. Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
  3. Fisher's One and a Half Syndrome
  4. Pseudo-Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Section 5: Supranuclear

  1. Vertical
    1. Upgaze
      1. Infarct
      2. Hemorrhage
      3. Degeneration
      4. Infection
        1. AIDS -Encephalitis
      5. Increased Intracranial Pressure
      6. Pineal Region Tumor
    2. Downgaze
      1. Infarct
      2. Encephalopathy
    3. Up and Downgaze
      1. Infarct
      2. Degeneration
      3. Infection
        1. Whipple's Disease
    4. Skew Deviation
      1. Infection
        1. Ocular Tilt Reaction
        2. Paroxysmal Skew Deviation
  2. Horizontal Gaze Disorders
    1. Unilateral Gaze Palsy
      1. Pontine Lesions
        1. Infarct
        2. Hemorrhage
        3. Demyelination
        4. Metastasis
    2. Bilateral Gaze Palsy
      1. Congenital
      2. Pontine Lesions
        1. Hemorrhage
        2. Hypoxia
    3. Slow Hypometric Horizontal Saccades
      1. Degeneration
    4. Lateropulsion

Section 6: Central Disorders

  1. Cortical
    1. Horizontal Gaze
      1. Ocular Motor Apraxia
        1. Congenital
        2. Aquired

Section 7: Vergence Movements

  1. Convergence Insufficiency
  2. Spasm of the Near Reflex